Vinification is the process that transforms the grapes into wine. The process of vinification differ from region to region, financial state of the winery and the grape types. The harvesting time and the type of oak used for aging are based on the region in which the wine grapes are grown.

Wine making process involves the following stages:

  • The first step in wine making process is Harvesting or Picking. Grapes should be harvested at the right time in order to make good wine. Harvesting can be done either mechanically or by hand.
  • The process of separating the grapes from the stems and cluster parts is called Destemming. Some of the wine makers keep some fragments of the stem to increase the wine tannin.
  • After destemming the grapes are crushed to extract the juice from the skin. This is done before the fermentation process begins. In the olden days bare feet is used to extract the grape juice, now a day machines like crushers are used.
  • Separation of grape juice and the skin is named as pressing. After crushing the grape juice will flow freely, selected wineries use pressers to make sure maximum juice is released.
  • Once the grapes are pressed they are introduced into the process of fermentation. During this process the grape juice are converted into alcoholic beverage. The yeast interacts with the sugar in the grape juice and converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • Once the wine is purified and refined, they are preserved with sulfur dioxide or potassium sorbate. During the natural process of fermentation a minimum amount of sulfites are produced, but more is added for the use of commercial preservation.
  • Wines are aged for a particular amount of time to get more welcoming wine. Once after purification, the wines are moved to wooden barrels for aging. Metal vats, concrete vats and glass carboys are also used in some cases to increase the flavor.
  • After aging, the wines are bottled. During the process of bottling a final dose of sulfite is added to the wine to prevent it from uninvited fermentation in the bottle. The bottles are then sealed with cork and screw caps.
red wine tannins
How do red wine tannins create a 'dry' sensation in the mouth?

Red wine tannins are well known for causing a drying sensation in the mouth, as we’re sure Decanter’s Jane Anson would confirm after recently tasting hundreds of barrel samples of the young Bordeaux 2018 vintage. But, why is this? And why might there be differences between red wine grape varieties? While the quantity and character […]

The post How do red wine tannins affect taste? Ask Decanter appeared first on Decanter.


red wine tannins
How do red wine tannins create a 'dry' sensation in the mouth?

Red wine tannins are well known for causing a drying sensation in the mouth, as we’re sure Decanter’s Jane Anson would confirm after recently tasting hundreds of barrel samples of the young Bordeaux 2018 vintage. But, why is this? And why might there be differences between red wine grape varieties? While the quantity and character […]

The post How do red wine tannins affect taste? Ask Decanter appeared first on Decanter.

red wine tannins
How do red wine tannins create a 'dry' sensation in the mouth?

Red wine tannins are well known for causing a drying sensation in the mouth, as we’re sure Decanter’s Jane Anson would confirm after recently tasting hundreds of barrel samples of the young Bordeaux 2018 vintage.

But, why is this? And why might there be differences between red wine grape varieties?

While the quantity and character of red wine tannins can be affected by a range of factors, such as growing season climate, grape skin thickness and cellar techniques, new research has examined how they are perceived by drinkers.

Cabernet Sauvignon tannins are physically bigger, more numerous and contain more pigment than Pinot Noir tannins, said the researchers, writing in the latest edition of the US-based Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

After extracting and analysing tannins from a Cabernet Sauvignon and a Pinot Noir wine, the researchers also found that Cabernet tannins formed more protein aggregates in saliva.

They said that this builds on pre-existing research that shows wines can taste more astringent and cause a mouth-drying sensation when ‘tannins and salivary proteins interact, aggregate and precipitate’, said the researchers, from UC Davis in California.

But, tannins don’t work alone and other characteristics in wine appeared to affect their powers, said the researchers, who used a trained sensory panel to look at this aspect.

‘When the opposite type of tannin was put into Cabernet or Pinot wines, the panellists could not detect differences in dryness,’ they said.

‘So, for example, when Cabernet tannins were added to a Pinot wine, the drink appeared to have the same dryness as the original Pinot.’

Aromas in the wine probably influenced panellists’ perception of its taste, said the researchers, whose work was partly funded by the American Vineyard Foundation.

As previously reported, most wine experts would also expect tannins in wine to soften with age. Tannins in a young red wine are seen as a key indicator of its ability to age, alongside fruit and acidity.

The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry is published by the American Chemical Society. 


Video: How to taste en primeur wine, with Jane Anson

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Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.