Vinification is the process that transforms the grapes into wine. The process of vinification differ from region to region, financial state of the winery and the grape types. The harvesting time and the type of oak used for aging are based on the region in which the wine grapes are grown.

Wine making process involves the following stages:

  • The first step in wine making process is Harvesting or Picking. Grapes should be harvested at the right time in order to make good wine. Harvesting can be done either mechanically or by hand.
  • The process of separating the grapes from the stems and cluster parts is called Destemming. Some of the wine makers keep some fragments of the stem to increase the wine tannin.
  • After destemming the grapes are crushed to extract the juice from the skin. This is done before the fermentation process begins. In the olden days bare feet is used to extract the grape juice, now a day machines like crushers are used.
  • Separation of grape juice and the skin is named as pressing. After crushing the grape juice will flow freely, selected wineries use pressers to make sure maximum juice is released.
  • Once the grapes are pressed they are introduced into the process of fermentation. During this process the grape juice are converted into alcoholic beverage. The yeast interacts with the sugar in the grape juice and converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • Once the wine is purified and refined, they are preserved with sulfur dioxide or potassium sorbate. During the natural process of fermentation a minimum amount of sulfites are produced, but more is added for the use of commercial preservation.
  • Wines are aged for a particular amount of time to get more welcoming wine. Once after purification, the wines are moved to wooden barrels for aging. Metal vats, concrete vats and glass carboys are also used in some cases to increase the flavor.
  • After aging, the wines are bottled. During the process of bottling a final dose of sulfite is added to the wine to prevent it from uninvited fermentation in the bottle. The bottles are then sealed with cork and screw caps.

The former head of UNESCO has called on the wine industry to support proposals to create a new index that can measure climate change risk in World Heritage sites, from the slopes of Douro Valley to the vineyards of Burgundy.

Symington douro winery, douro valley

A view across Douro Valley.

Winemakers can help with new index to battle climate change, says ex-UNESCO director-general...

The post Climate change is biggest risk to World Heritage sites – former UNESCO chief appeared first on Decanter.


The former head of UNESCO has called on the wine industry to support proposals to create a new index that can measure climate change risk in World Heritage sites, from the slopes of Douro Valley to the vineyards of Burgundy.

Symington douro winery, douro valley

A view across Douro Valley.

Winemakers can help with new index to battle climate change, says ex-UNESCO director-general...

The post Climate change is biggest risk to World Heritage sites – former UNESCO chief appeared first on Decanter.

The former head of UNESCO has called on the wine industry to support proposals to create a new index that can measure climate change risk in World Heritage sites, from the slopes of Douro Valley to the vineyards of Burgundy.

Symington douro winery, douro valley

A view across Douro Valley.

Climate change is the biggest risk to UNESCO World Heritage sites, yet the United Nations body needs help to research and measure its impact, according to Irina Bokova, director-general from 2009 to 2017.

Speaking at a climate change summit in Porto that was co-hosted by wine trade members, including Taylor’s Port, Bokova called for wine industry support to develop and implement a recently proposed Climate Vulnerability Index for World Heritage sites.

Wine regions feature prominently on the UNESCO World Heritage list, with Alto Douro, Bordeaux, Piedmont, Champagne, Burgundy and even the tiny Italian island of Pantelleria, off the coast of Sicily, all enjoying protected status.

This celebrates not just the wine industry ‘but a very close link between wine, climate, identity and tradition’, said Bokova.

She said the proposed climate index would help to prioritise ideas for making areas more resilient to climate change.

‘The Douro Valley can be a very good example of how this new index can be created and implemented,’ she said.

Bokova’s comments are timely given increased extreme weather events in the Douro.

Summoning up disaster movie images of desertification and destruction, Adrian Bridge, CEO of The Fladgate Partnership, reported that ‘last year the source of the river Douro dried up because the whole of 2017 had been dry…then we have had rain since the third week of February’.

This May, a flash flood and hail severely damaged Alto Douro roads, vines and terraces in the Pinhão Valley, with an estimated 80% production loss at Fladgate’s Quinta do Junco.


Related: Extreme weather becoming the new normal, warns major study


Paul Symington, CEO of Symington Family Estates (SFE), told Decanter.com, ‘We are facing an existential threat and, without an ambitious and rapid global response, the Douro’s viability as a wine-growing region over the coming decades is in question.’

Last year SFE formed a company-wide sustainability working group and publicly raised the controversial issue of irrigation in the Douro with the Ministry of Agriculture.

Whilst Symington agrees about securing commitments from the wine and wider business community to adapt to climate change, he added, ‘the challenge is too great to be left solely to voluntary pledges by the business community’.

A follow-up event, the Climate Change Leadership Solutions Conference, will be held in Porto in March 2019.


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The post Climate change is biggest risk to World Heritage sites – former UNESCO chief appeared first on Decanter.


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Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.