Vinification is the process that transforms the grapes into wine. The process of vinification differ from region to region, financial state of the winery and the grape types. The harvesting time and the type of oak used for aging are based on the region in which the wine grapes are grown.

Wine making process involves the following stages:

  • The first step in wine making process is Harvesting or Picking. Grapes should be harvested at the right time in order to make good wine. Harvesting can be done either mechanically or by hand.
  • The process of separating the grapes from the stems and cluster parts is called Destemming. Some of the wine makers keep some fragments of the stem to increase the wine tannin.
  • After destemming the grapes are crushed to extract the juice from the skin. This is done before the fermentation process begins. In the olden days bare feet is used to extract the grape juice, now a day machines like crushers are used.
  • Separation of grape juice and the skin is named as pressing. After crushing the grape juice will flow freely, selected wineries use pressers to make sure maximum juice is released.
  • Once the grapes are pressed they are introduced into the process of fermentation. During this process the grape juice are converted into alcoholic beverage. The yeast interacts with the sugar in the grape juice and converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • Once the wine is purified and refined, they are preserved with sulfur dioxide or potassium sorbate. During the natural process of fermentation a minimum amount of sulfites are produced, but more is added for the use of commercial preservation.
  • Wines are aged for a particular amount of time to get more welcoming wine. Once after purification, the wines are moved to wooden barrels for aging. Metal vats, concrete vats and glass carboys are also used in some cases to increase the flavor.
  • After aging, the wines are bottled. During the process of bottling a final dose of sulfite is added to the wine to prevent it from uninvited fermentation in the bottle. The bottles are then sealed with cork and screw caps.

How many wine regions on the UNESCO list have you ticked off? Here is some inspiration for 2018, with links to full travel guides compiled by our contributors and in-house editorial team...

pantelleria, unesco
The remote island of Pantelleria joined the UNESCO World Heritage club in 2014.

Inspiration for 2018...

The post UNESCO world heritage wine regions to visit appeared first on Decanter.


How many wine regions on the UNESCO list have you ticked off? Here is some inspiration for 2018, with links to full travel guides compiled by our contributors and in-house editorial team...

pantelleria, unesco
The remote island of Pantelleria joined the UNESCO World Heritage club in 2014.

Inspiration for 2018...

The post UNESCO world heritage wine regions to visit appeared first on Decanter.

How many wine regions on the UNESCO list have you ticked off? Here is some inspiration for 2018, with links to full travel guides compiled by our contributors and in-house editorial team...

pantelleria, unesco
The remote island of Pantelleria joined the UNESCO World Heritage club in 2014.

Updated 09/01/2018

Champagne

Getting there: One hour drive from Paris or 40 minutes on TGV train from Paris Gare du Nord.

riddling racks in the Krug cellars

Riddling racks in the Krug cellars in Champagne. Credit: Krug.

Champagne came oddly late to the UNESCO World Heritage list; its vineyards, houses and miles of underground cellars making the exclusive club in 2015.

It has arguably also been a little slow to consider the potential of wine tourism, given that it lies barely an hour from Paris, one of the most visited cities in the world.

But, things are changing in this part of the world and several houses are well worth a visit.

Decanter contributor and Tyson Stelzer recently shared his tips on where to go in Champagne.

At the November Decanter Fine Wine Encounter in London, Laura Seal also asked several Champagne producers and representatives for their favourite local restaurantsWords: Chris Mercer.


SEE ALSO: 

  • Ten tips for visiting Champagne houses


Tokaj, Hungary

Getting there: Fly to Budapest, then it’s a three-hour drive to Tarcal via the M3 motorway. A direct train from Budapest Keleti station to Tokaj takes 2.5 hours.

Tokaj vineyards of Oremus Estate

Tokaj vineyards of Oremus Estate. Credit: Hans-Peter Siffert / Bon Appetit / Alamy

Hungary’s Tokaj appellation, characterised by its rolling and verdant hills, has the distinction of being Europe’s first classified wine region. The thousand-year-old winemaking traditions that still remain in place today make it an obvious choice for UNESCO world heritage designation.

Home to the famous Tokaji-Aszú dessert wine (characterised by French King Louis XIV as ‘the wine of kings, the king of wines’), it is also noteworthy for its labyrinthine cellars where these historic sweet wines are stored.

The Ungvári cellar in Sátoraljaújhely, near the Slovakian border, comprises four floors which connect 27 different cellars, accessed from different, above-ground gates. Covered in extraordinary mould, the cellar labyrinth is one ingredient that contributes to the magic of these dessert wines. Words: Katie Kelly Bell


SEE ALSO:

  •  Decanter travel guide to Tokaj


Loire Valley, France

Getting there: Fly to Paris-Orly and Sancerre is a two-hour drive. Alternatively, take a train from Paris to Tours. Saumur is then a one-hour drive west. Sancerre is a two-and-a-half-hour drive east from Tours. You can also fly to Tours.

Loire main

Loire Valley is on the UNESCO list.

With its swathes of rolling vineyards and wheat fields surrounding palaces built or modified during the Renaissance, the Loire is a vivid testament to mankind’s golden age.

The UNESCO area of the Loire comprises 164 towns and villages – including Chinon, Samur and Angers – between the two hillsides that border the river from Sully-sur-Loire (Loiret) and Chalonnessur- Loire (Maine-et-Loire).

Many of the region’s charming villages and roadways are vestiges of the enormous Roman influence, as the Loire was a vital waterway between Rome and ancient Gaul. Words: Katie Kelly Bell


SEE ALSO:

  • Decanter travel guide to Loire Valley


Douro Valley, Portugal

Getting there: Fly to Porto. One-hour drive to the heart of the valley, or a more scenic route is the 2.5 hour train ride, known as the Linha do Douro.

Spain & Portugal wine tour

An opulent manor in the homeland of Port… Image Credit: sixsenses.com

Demarcated in 1756, the Douro is one of the world’s oldest wine regions and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of the human influence on its development. More than 2,000 years of winemaking have shaped it into a terraced, vine-covered, wine-producing destination.

The highly acidic terroir is unforgiving schist, which winemakers have physically cracked and crushed to accommodate vines. Steep mountain contours require heavy terracing and water management; some vines have roots that run to 20m deep. Growing grapes here requires rare fortitude. Words: Katie Kelly Bell


SEE ALSO:

  • Decanter’s Douro travel guide

  • Where to eat in Porto


Piedmont, Italy

Getting there: Fly to Turin. It’s then around 1hr 20 minutes in a car to Alba.

barolo 2014, cuneo

Autumnal sunrise in heartlands of Barolo in Piedmont’s Cuneo province. Federica Violin / Alamy.

The World Heritage Committee added the ‘vineyard landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-Roero and Monferrato’ in 2014.

The listing includes the towns of Barolo, Castiglione Falletto Grinzane Cavour, La Morra, Monforte d’Alba, Novello and Serralunga d’Alba in the Barolo DOCG, as well as Barbaresco and Neive in the Barbaresco DOCG.

In its submission for Piedmont, Italy’s government said, ‘Vine pollen has been found in the area dating from the 5th Century BC’. See how Decanter.com reported the story.


SEE ALSO:

  • Decanter travel guide to Piedmont


Middle Rhine, Germany

Getting there: Fly to Frankfurt or Cologne-Bonn airports and then it’s around 1hr 30 minutes in the car from each.

Mosel Valley

The Middle Rhine’s beauty is well-chronicled, but it gained UNESCO status for its role as a major trade artery in the evolution of history and human development.

Numerous hiking trails surround the villages, offering visitors magnificent vistas of vineyards and forested countryside. Riesling flourishes on the region’s precipitous hillsides but requires great care and skill during harvest (some slopes angle nearly 45˚).

The ideal way to explore the region, and certainly the most bucolic, is by boat. Consider making the village of Boppard your home base, a 2,000-year-old town that hosts an annual walk through the vineyards on the last Sunday in April. Words: Katie Kelly Bell


Bordeaux and St-Emilion, France

Getting there: Fly to Bordeaux Mérignac airport.

Bordeaux

The Bordeaux skyline

Bordeaux hardly needs introduction to wine lovers. According to UNESCO, the city’s 2,000-year-old role as the capital of a world-famous wineproducing region make it a shining example of cultural heritage. And in many ways, the city is as lovely and intriguing as the region’s châteaux.

In the past decade most of the buildings (previously covered in layers of grime and soot) have undergone a massive façade-cleansing, lending added lustre to the city’s grand structures. Words: Katie Kelly Bell


SEE ALSO:

  • Jane Anson’s guide to the new wave of restaurants at Bordeaux châteaux

  • How to visit Bordeaux’s Cité du Vin wine theme park


Pantelleria, Italy

Getting there: Catch a ferry from Trapani in Sicily, which takes between six and eight hours. Alitalia operates flights from Trapani and Palermo – and also Milan and Rome in the summer months. A flight from Trapani takes about 40 minutes.

Pantelleria, Unesco

Pantelleria island bush vines. Credit: Italian ministry of agriculture

Looking for somewhere more remote to explore or get away from it all? The wild card entry in this selection is Pantelleria, 85km off Italy’s southern coast.

Its terraced bush vine growing technique handed down through centuries of generations was placed on the UNESCO world heritage list in late 2014.

Passito di Pantelleria, a sweet wine made from dried ‘Zibibbo‘ grapes, also known as Muscat of Alexandria, has DOC status in Italy. Moscato di Pantelleria is also a DOC.

Let us know here or tweet us @Decanter if you have been to any of these regions. What did you do there? Did any particular wines stand out?

The post UNESCO world heritage wine regions to visit appeared first on Decanter.


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Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.