Vinification is the process that transforms the grapes into wine. The process of vinification differ from region to region, financial state of the winery and the grape types. The harvesting time and the type of oak used for aging are based on the region in which the wine grapes are grown.

Wine making process involves the following stages:

  • The first step in wine making process is Harvesting or Picking. Grapes should be harvested at the right time in order to make good wine. Harvesting can be done either mechanically or by hand.
  • The process of separating the grapes from the stems and cluster parts is called Destemming. Some of the wine makers keep some fragments of the stem to increase the wine tannin.
  • After destemming the grapes are crushed to extract the juice from the skin. This is done before the fermentation process begins. In the olden days bare feet is used to extract the grape juice, now a day machines like crushers are used.
  • Separation of grape juice and the skin is named as pressing. After crushing the grape juice will flow freely, selected wineries use pressers to make sure maximum juice is released.
  • Once the grapes are pressed they are introduced into the process of fermentation. During this process the grape juice are converted into alcoholic beverage. The yeast interacts with the sugar in the grape juice and converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • Once the wine is purified and refined, they are preserved with sulfur dioxide or potassium sorbate. During the natural process of fermentation a minimum amount of sulfites are produced, but more is added for the use of commercial preservation.
  • Wines are aged for a particular amount of time to get more welcoming wine. Once after purification, the wines are moved to wooden barrels for aging. Metal vats, concrete vats and glass carboys are also used in some cases to increase the flavor.
  • After aging, the wines are bottled. During the process of bottling a final dose of sulfite is added to the wine to prevent it from uninvited fermentation in the bottle. The bottles are then sealed with cork and screw caps.

Not sure what they mean? John Stimpfig explains...

tirage dosage
Champagne before disgorgement.

Not sure about the difference..?

The post Spot the difference: Tirage and dosage in Champagne – ask Decanter appeared first on Decanter.


Not sure what they mean? John Stimpfig explains...

tirage dosage
Champagne before disgorgement.

Not sure about the difference..?

The post Spot the difference: Tirage and dosage in Champagne – ask Decanter appeared first on Decanter.

Not sure what they mean? John Stimpfig explains...

tirage dosage
Champagne before disgorgement.

Difference between tirage and dosage

Ben Jenkins, Sidmouth, asks: What is the difference between tirage and dosage in the production of Champagne?

John Stimpfig replies: Both additions are key elements in the winemaking process for Champagne and all bottle-fermented sparkling wine.

Liqueur de tirage is a liquid solution of yeast, wine and sugar that is added to the still base wine in order to create the secondary fermentation in bottle. The amount of sugar determines the level of dryness in the wine as well as the atmospheric pressure in the bottle.

The dosage is the amount of sugar in the liqueur d’expedition (a mix of sugar and wine), which is added just after disgorgement.

This not only tops up the wine, it also helps balance the acidity and add sweetness – depending on the style (see below).


SEE ALSO:

What’s the difference between ‘brut nature’ and ‘zéro dosage’?

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As all the yeasts have either been consumed or expelled at the point of disgorgement, there is no chance of a third fermentation in bottle.

Some Champagnes are now labelled as non-dosé, zéro dosage or brut nature (the official term), which means that no sugar was added to the liqueur d’expedition.

Brut Nature: no added sugar and less than 3 grams/litre of residual sugars

Extra-Brut: between 0g/l and 6g/l of residual sugars

Brut: less than 12g/l of residual sugars

Extra Sec/Extra Dry: between 12g/l and 17g/l of residual sugars

Sec/Dry: between 17g/l and 32g/l of residual sugars

Demi-Sec: between 32g/l and 50g/l of residual sugars


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The post Spot the difference: Tirage and dosage in Champagne – ask Decanter appeared first on Decanter.


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Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.