Vinification is the process that transforms the grapes into wine. The process of vinification differ from region to region, financial state of the winery and the grape types. The harvesting time and the type of oak used for aging are based on the region in which the wine grapes are grown.

Wine making process involves the following stages:

  • The first step in wine making process is Harvesting or Picking. Grapes should be harvested at the right time in order to make good wine. Harvesting can be done either mechanically or by hand.
  • The process of separating the grapes from the stems and cluster parts is called Destemming. Some of the wine makers keep some fragments of the stem to increase the wine tannin.
  • After destemming the grapes are crushed to extract the juice from the skin. This is done before the fermentation process begins. In the olden days bare feet is used to extract the grape juice, now a day machines like crushers are used.
  • Separation of grape juice and the skin is named as pressing. After crushing the grape juice will flow freely, selected wineries use pressers to make sure maximum juice is released.
  • Once the grapes are pressed they are introduced into the process of fermentation. During this process the grape juice are converted into alcoholic beverage. The yeast interacts with the sugar in the grape juice and converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • Once the wine is purified and refined, they are preserved with sulfur dioxide or potassium sorbate. During the natural process of fermentation a minimum amount of sulfites are produced, but more is added for the use of commercial preservation.
  • Wines are aged for a particular amount of time to get more welcoming wine. Once after purification, the wines are moved to wooden barrels for aging. Metal vats, concrete vats and glass carboys are also used in some cases to increase the flavor.
  • After aging, the wines are bottled. During the process of bottling a final dose of sulfite is added to the wine to prevent it from uninvited fermentation in the bottle. The bottles are then sealed with cork and screw caps.

There could be fewer Loire wines around from several appellations after winemakers were among those hit by heavy frosts across Europe, and some for the second consecutive year.

loire frost

Loire Valley vines were also hit hard by spring frost in 2016.

Some wines may be hard to find...

The post Loire 2017 vintage in trouble after frost, say winemakers appeared first on Decanter.


There could be fewer Loire wines around from several appellations after winemakers were among those hit by heavy frosts across Europe, and some for the second consecutive year.

loire frost

Loire Valley vines were also hit hard by spring frost in 2016.

Some wines may be hard to find...

The post Loire 2017 vintage in trouble after frost, say winemakers appeared first on Decanter.

There could be fewer Loire wines around from several appellations after winemakers were among those hit by heavy frosts across Europe, and some for the second consecutive year.

loire frost

Loire Valley vines were also hit hard by spring frost in 2016.

Although it is still too early to have exact figures, some Loire regions and appellations have lost a significant percentage of their 2017 crop due to frost.

Unlike the historic frost of 1991, which occurred over one night, producers faced an exhausting series of frosts as they did in 2016.

The frosts occurred in the last weeks of April with particular damage on the 20th, 26th and 27th.


More on the 2017 frost

  • Bordeaux’s worst frost since 1991 – What now?

  • Frost leaves vine leaves looking like dried tobacco


Damage varies considerably along the Loire. In the Pays Nantais (Muscadet), Savennières and Saumur-Champigny the frost is more serious than last year, while overall Indre-et-Loire department has suffered less than last year.

‘The 2017 frosts are more serious than last year with around 40%-50% of our vineyards affected, although we will not have a full picture until the end of this week,’ said François Robin, of La fédération des vins de Nantes. ‘The heart of the Sèvre-et-Maine has suffered most.’

Emmanuel Ogereau, of Domaine Ogereau, told Decanter.com, ‘Savennières was wiped out on 27th – only 10% of the crop remains and there is also severe damage in other parts of Anjou.’

‘The higher Saumur-Champigny vineyards, which are not normally frosted, were hit on 20th, while the lower ones to the west were frosted the next week, especially 27th,’ said Patrick Vadé.

‘Some producers have lost everything. The Robert & Marcel coop report a 20% loss in their 1800 hectares.’

Guillaume Lapaque, directeur at Fédération des Associations Viticoles d’Indre-et-Loire et de la Sarthe says that, ‘Overall the 2017 frost has been much less devastating in Indre et Loire than in 2016. We calculate that the loss in the département is in the order of 15%, whereas last year it was 50%.

‘There are, however, areas that have been very badly hit such as Savigny-en-Véron and Beaumont in Chinon with producers losing virtually all their crop, Azay-le-Rideau, Montlouis and Touraine Noble Joué.’

‘Pouilly-Fumé and Coteaux du Giennois have again suffered badly,” says Benoît Roumet, BIVC director along with Châteaumeillant. Fortunately Menetou-Salon escaped this year, while only the northern part of Sancerre around Ste-Gemme got caught. 80% of Quincy is protected by wind machines and no significant losses in Reuilly.’

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Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.