Vinification is the process that transforms the grapes into wine. The process of vinification differ from region to region, financial state of the winery and the grape types. The harvesting time and the type of oak used for aging are based on the region in which the wine grapes are grown.

Wine making process involves the following stages:

  • The first step in wine making process is Harvesting or Picking. Grapes should be harvested at the right time in order to make good wine. Harvesting can be done either mechanically or by hand.
  • The process of separating the grapes from the stems and cluster parts is called Destemming. Some of the wine makers keep some fragments of the stem to increase the wine tannin.
  • After destemming the grapes are crushed to extract the juice from the skin. This is done before the fermentation process begins. In the olden days bare feet is used to extract the grape juice, now a day machines like crushers are used.
  • Separation of grape juice and the skin is named as pressing. After crushing the grape juice will flow freely, selected wineries use pressers to make sure maximum juice is released.
  • Once the grapes are pressed they are introduced into the process of fermentation. During this process the grape juice are converted into alcoholic beverage. The yeast interacts with the sugar in the grape juice and converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • Once the wine is purified and refined, they are preserved with sulfur dioxide or potassium sorbate. During the natural process of fermentation a minimum amount of sulfites are produced, but more is added for the use of commercial preservation.
  • Wines are aged for a particular amount of time to get more welcoming wine. Once after purification, the wines are moved to wooden barrels for aging. Metal vats, concrete vats and glass carboys are also used in some cases to increase the flavor.
  • After aging, the wines are bottled. During the process of bottling a final dose of sulfite is added to the wine to prevent it from uninvited fermentation in the bottle. The bottles are then sealed with cork and screw caps.

Frost has left vines 'looking like dried tobacco' recently in wine regions across Europe. But how can winemakers help to prevent frost?

prevent frost
Fires to prevent the frost at Ridgeview in Sussex.

How to prevent it...?

The post How can winemakers prevent frost? – ask Decanter appeared first on Decanter.


Frost has left vines 'looking like dried tobacco' recently in wine regions across Europe. But how can winemakers help to prevent frost?

prevent frost
Fires to prevent the frost at Ridgeview in Sussex.

How to prevent it...?

The post How can winemakers prevent frost? – ask Decanter appeared first on Decanter.

Frost has left vines 'looking like dried tobacco' recently in wine regions across Europe. But how can winemakers help to prevent frost?

prevent frost
Fires to prevent the frost at Ridgeview in Sussex.

How do winemakers prevent frost? – ask Decanter

Frost protection – Switzerland

Frost protection with fire buckets in the vineyards of Switzerland tonight.Meteo Europe Severe Weather Europe WetterOnline

Posted by Marco Kaschuba on Friday, April 21, 2017

Above: Fires prevent frost in Switzerland in April 2017. Credit: Marco Kaschuda.

Frost is a particuarly big risk for cool climate wine regions, where it can severely damage the newly emerging buds.

In Champagne, losses of 20% in some areas and up to 50% in others have been reported by vineyard managers recently.  It also is a frequent problem in areas like Chablis, the Loire and also the UK. But the past week has seen hundreds of hectares damaged much further south, too, in places like Languedoc-Roussillon on the Mediterranean coast.

Here’s some techniques and action-shots of how winemakers seek to limit frost damage on their vines.

Fire

At Ridgeview in Sussex they use ‘bougies’ – large paraffin candles which give off enough heat to create air movement which prevents a frost pocket forming.

prevent frost

Burning bougies at Ridgeview in Sussex. Credit: Julia Claxton: International Garden Photographer of the Year/Royal Photographic Society Silver Medallist

‘Our vineyard team stay up overnight, constantly checking the weather stations for sign of a frost and when the temperature does drop, they must quickly head out to the vineyard to light the bougies,’ said Hannah Simpson-Banks, Retail and event manager at Ridgeview.

prevent frost

Frost preventing fires at Ridgeview in Sussex. Credit: Julia Claxton: International Garden Photographer of the Year/Royal Photographic Society Silver Medallist.

‘It takes our team around 50 minutes to light them all,’ said Simpson-Banks.

Ian Kellett, from Hambledon Vineyard, in Hampshire, said his team used vineyard stems from pruning as fuel source for fires, which are lit in bins.

Fans

frost wind machine

A wind machine waits to defend against frost in Calistoga, Napa Valley. Credit: George Oze / Alamy Stock Photo.

Using fans and wind machines to keep the air moving also helps to prevent frost.

‘We are trying to move air as much as warm up the local immediate environment. We have big fans running through the night to to try to move the air,’ said Kellett.

Helicopters

prevent frost

Two helicopters fly above vines, effectively whirling cold and warm air in order to raise the temperature in the vineyard and preventing late frost on a vineyard in Obersulm, Germany. Credit: Christoph Schmidt/dpa/Alamy Live News

Helicopters are also used for air displacement to help prevent frost, although this is not quite as common.

Several winemakers used them in Europe last week, including in Baden-Württemberg in Germany and also in France’s Loire Valley.

Sprinklers

Other common methods include using heaters in the vineyard, to keep the air too warm to allow frost to settle, or using sprinklers – which help to keep the temperature above freezing.

Frost will rarely affect a vineyard region equally, and the risk is a consideration when choosing a site.

Factors for winemakers to consider in the vineyard include choice of site and variety, and trellises, which can mitigate frost to an extent.

More vineyard risks:

The post How can winemakers prevent frost? – ask Decanter appeared first on Decanter.


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Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Each wine is unique. Soil, weather, geology, varietals, and the style of wine making, are all decisive yet variable factors that give each wine a unique character.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.
Winemakers all over the world are combining wine making traditions of millennia with innovative approaches and ideas, to address consumer demand for high quality products and a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.