Vinification is the process that transforms the grapes into wine. The process of vinification differ from region to region, financial state of the winery and the grape types. The harvesting time and the type of oak used for aging are based on the region in which the wine grapes are grown.

Wine making process involves the following stages:

  • The first step in wine making process is Harvesting or Picking. Grapes should be harvested at the right time in order to make good wine. Harvesting can be done either mechanically or by hand.
  • The process of separating the grapes from the stems and cluster parts is called Destemming. Some of the wine makers keep some fragments of the stem to increase the wine tannin.
  • After destemming the grapes are crushed to extract the juice from the skin. This is done before the fermentation process begins. In the olden days bare feet is used to extract the grape juice, now a day machines like crushers are used.
  • Separation of grape juice and the skin is named as pressing. After crushing the grape juice will flow freely, selected wineries use pressers to make sure maximum juice is released.
  • Once the grapes are pressed they are introduced into the process of fermentation. During this process the grape juice are converted into alcoholic beverage. The yeast interacts with the sugar in the grape juice and converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • Once the wine is purified and refined, they are preserved with sulfur dioxide or potassium sorbate. During the natural process of fermentation a minimum amount of sulfites are produced, but more is added for the use of commercial preservation.
  • Wines are aged for a particular amount of time to get more welcoming wine. Once after purification, the wines are moved to wooden barrels for aging. Metal vats, concrete vats and glass carboys are also used in some cases to increase the flavor.
  • After aging, the wines are bottled. During the process of bottling a final dose of sulfite is added to the wine to prevent it from uninvited fermentation in the bottle. The bottles are then sealed with cork and screw caps.

Bordeaux vineyards have been hit by what many fear is the worst frost in a quarter of a century, with farming unions warning that some producers now face crisis and that the 2017 vintage could be affected. With extra reporting by Chris Mercer.

bordeaux frost
Fires are lit in the vineyards around St-Emilion to help prevent frost.

Bordeaux becomes latest victim of frosts hitting Europe...

The post ‘Devastating’ frost strikes Bordeaux vineyards next appeared first on Decanter.


Bordeaux vineyards have been hit by what many fear is the worst frost in a quarter of a century, with farming unions warning that some producers now face crisis and that the 2017 vintage could be affected. With extra reporting by Chris Mercer.

bordeaux frost
Fires are lit in the vineyards around St-Emilion to help prevent frost.

Bordeaux becomes latest victim of frosts hitting Europe...

The post ‘Devastating’ frost strikes Bordeaux vineyards next appeared first on Decanter.

Bordeaux vineyards have been hit by what many fear is the worst frost in a quarter of a century, with farming unions warning that some producers now face crisis and that the 2017 vintage could be affected. With extra reporting by Chris Mercer.

bordeaux frost
Fires are lit in the vineyards around St-Emilion to help prevent frost.

Bordeaux, and especially the Right Bank, has become the latest victim of severe frosts across Western Europe in the past fortnight.

Temperatures of -3 ° C swept the vineyards of Bordeaux overnight on 26 and 27 April, causing considerable damage to vines already well into the growing season thanks to an early spring.

Farming union FDSEA said the frost made for a ‘devastating’ spring for its members, although it cautioned that full assessments were still underway.

Early estimates suggested that thousands of hectares of vines and agricultural crops in general in the area had been damaged, said the union.

While some of the larger estates may have been able to afford advanced frost protection, such as helicopters, sprinklers and heaters, Bordeaux has around 6,000 winemakers and many are small-scale producers.

Already facing financial difficulties, ‘this frost has reduced winemakers’ hopes to nothing’, said the local branch of FDSEA, calling for a crisis meeting.

In some areas of the Right Bank, ‘losses of between 50% to 100% are envisaged,’ Thomas Duclos, associate oenologist at Oenoteam, told Decanter.com.

He said that it was difficult to properly estimate the damage and impact on the 2017 harvest at this early stage, because ‘we do not know how the vine will react’.

Several winegrowers drew parallels with the notoriously bad frosts of 1991.

Only the plateau of Pomerol seems to have been mostly spared on the Right Bank. Those in the valley were particularly affected.

Some of the classified grands crus used helicopters to try to prevent frost forming, while many producers in Bordeaux and across Europe have this week deployed heaters and lit hundreds of controlled fires to keep the vines warm.

In Bordeaux, Pauline Vauthier said that fires had kept her family’s vineyards at Château Ausone safe this week. But she reported fears of significant damage at the Fonbel and Simard estates.

In Pessac-Léognan, closer to the city, the damage was worst in cool places, close to forests, although it was too early to give a proper assessment.

In the Entre-deux-Mers, Nicolas Lesaint, of Château Reignac, in St-Loubes, said that he had never seen frost so severe.

Frost has also caused problems in across many other vineyards in Europe, including in northern Italy, Switzerland, Germany, several areas of France and the UK.

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